19th Feb. 2018
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Nepal History  
Nepalis take immense pride in the historical fact that no country ever colonized Nepal despite several attacks from the British colonial empire in India. Modern Nepal was constituted from a number of tiny feudal states between the Indian Ganges River in the South & the Tibetan plateau in the north. The credit for uniting these fragile & warring states into one powerful nation goes to the King of Gorkha Prithvi Narayan Shah. However, the wave of ethnic consciousness in the recent years questioned the 240-years of undisputed legacy of the Shah Kings, even blaming the once symbol of national unity King Prithvi of imperial aristocrat. Present Prime Minister and the Maoist Party Chairman overwhelmingly got elected in the Constituent Assembly election held in 2008 by choosing a constituency in Kirtipur of Kathmandu which was the first place of the Kathmandu valley conquered by King Prithvi of Gorkha across the mountains.

King Prithvi after conquering Kathmandu, the made it the capital of Kingdom of Nepal. The world Nepal in fact was used for the Kathmandu valley only until recently, and older people in the countryside still mention of their visit to “Nepal” meaning Kathmandu. Since the unification in 1768, Nepal enjoyed a powerful & expanding kingdom until it lost a significant part of its territory in several wars with the Britain from 1812 to 1816. Some historicists claim that the Kathmandu valley was under Tibetan control in ancient times, but Nepal controlled the Tibet during 19 century and used to raise a levy from the Tibet government. Nepal also fought with China during that period over the sovereignty of Tibet.

The reign of the kingdom went from the Shah to Rana clan after Prime Minister Jung Bahadur Rana declared himself the ruler through a bloody coup-de-tat. Jung Bahadur made a month long visit to Britain, and helped the British rule in India by sending his troops to suppress the first revolt in India – the Lucknow Mutiny. The Rana brothers ruled the country as a de-facto British protectorate for 104 years. Inspired by Indian freedom struggle of 1947, the Shah King Tribhuwan & people of Nepal revolted against the Rana autocracy in 1950 to establish a democratic form of governance.

However, the then King Mahendra again imposed a party- less system under himself by replacing the first ever elected government of Nepal in 1960. King Birendra accepted the multi-party constitutional monarchy in 1990 after a peaceful popular uprising. The Maoists began their revolt against the parliamentary government in 1993. The King Birendra & his family were killed in a modern day thriller manner in 2001 Nepal Palace Massacre. The succeeding King Gyanendra ousted the political government by subscribing to the Bush theory of War on Terror.

The coalition of the political parties & the Maoists that launched a peaceful agitation against the King’s rule in 2006 ended the Maoist War, subsequently abolishing the monarchy itself by the declaration of the Constitutional Assembly in 2008. The Maoist combatants since then have been under the supervision of the United Nations’ Mission in Nepal (UNMIN).

The country was declared a secular & democratic Federal Republic of Nepal, headed by the President Dr. Ram Baran Yadav and the Prime Minister Prachanda as the chief of the executive. The Interim Constitution 2007 has directed the Constituent Assembly to draft for a new constitution within at most two & a half years time-period. The Maoist party led coalition government presented the budget for the fiscal year 2008 envisions a double digit growth by promoting tourism as one of the major industries.
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